Oldest Man-Made Landmarks in Each State


These ancient man-made structures, whether they served as homes, fortifications, or sacred spaces, each hold a unique piece of the American story. Let’s go on this remarkable tour across the country, where history and the memories of those before us are etched in stone and wood.

Alabama: Florence Indian Mound, Florence, 500 AD

Florence Indian Mound Museum/Facebook

Standing as proof of the region’s prehistoric inhabitants, the Florence Indian Mound reflects the complex societal structures of its builders. Adjacent to the ceremonial center for Native Americans, the gallery displays artifacts and exhibits that illustrate the workers’ daily lives and spiritual beliefs.

Alaska: Baranov Museum, Kodiak, 1808

Kodiak History Museum/Facebook

Kodiak’s Baranov Museum, housed in the Russian-American Magazin, illuminates Alaska’s colonial era under Russian rule. As the oldest wooden building in the state, it gives valuable reflections into the lives of fur traders and indigenous people and their complex interactions.

Arizona: Mummy Cave, Navajo National Monument, 7280 BC-AD 1580

Canyon de Chelly National Monument/Facebook

Mummy Cave in Navajo National Monument showcases the architectural genius of the Puebloans. With over 80 rooms and towers perched in a natural alcove, its strategic position overlooking Canyon del Muerto served as a natural fortress and a vantage point for the antiquated Puebloans.

Arkansas: The Wolf House, Norfolk, 1829

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Jacob Wolf House, built in 1829 in Norfolk, is Arkansas’s earliest public structure. Originally intended as a courthouse, it symbolizes the frontier spirit and the early administration of justice. Today, it’s an exhibition that narrates the hardships and resilience of the pioneers.

California: Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo, Carmel, 1797

Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo/Facebook

California’s first stone building, The Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo in Carmel, is a beacon of the Spanish mission era. Its historical and edificial relevance is the cornerstone of Junipero Serra’s mission chain. Tourists can admire original liturgical antiquities and art, bridging the gap between past and present.

Colorado: Cliff dwellings at Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, 750 – 1300 CE

Manitou Cliff Dwellings Museum/Facebook

Ancestral Puebloans developed cliff dwellings around the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument in Colorado. These stone structures, built into cliff faces, reveal a deep understanding of their environment. Their extensive network of archaeological sites, preserved kivas, and ceremonial rooms suggests an intricate social framework and religious significance.

Connecticut: Henry Whitfield State Museum, Guilford, 1639

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Combining ancestral architecture with educational exhibits, the Henry Whitfield State Museum becomes a window into yesteryears’ Puritan living. Connecticut’s oldest residence displays an extensive collection of 17th-century relics and stories of colonial struggles; its construction, unusual for its time, emphasizes the settlers’ desire for permanence and protection.

Delaware: Ryves Holt House, Lewes, 1665

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In Lewes, the Ryves Holt House, now transformed into a gallery, offers a vivid glimpse into age-old American life and Delaware’s imperial chronicle through immersive guided tours. Its involvement in the Underground Railroad further highlights its critical role in the struggle for freedom.

Florida: Castillo de San Marcos, St. Augustine, 1672

Castillo de San Marcos National Monument/Facebook

St. Augustine’s Castillo de San Marcos, completed in 1672, epitomizes its era’s colonial struggles and constructive prowess. As the earliest masonry fortress in the United States, its star-shaped design and coquina walls reveal primitive engineering insights and defense strategies. Live reenactments and demonstrations bring the citadel’s vibrant past to the present.

Georgia: Etowah Indian Mounds, Cartersville, 1000 – 1550 CE

Castillo de San Marcos National Monument/Facebook

In Cartersville, the Etowah Indian Mounds exemplify the peak of Mississippian culture. These extensive earthworks served as ceremonial premises and residences for the elite, and the accompanying museum, which displayed artifacts such as pottery and weaponry, further illuminated this advanced civilization.

Hawaii: Mo’okini Heiau, Kohala, 480

Mo’okini Luakini Heiau/Facebook

Constructed in 480, Mo’okini Heiau is a sacred spot where primeval Hawaiians connect with their gods through rituals. Its archival importance is immense, providing perspectives on pre-contact Hawaiian religion and society. The heiau is also noted for its astronomical alignments, highlighting the citizens’ nuanced comprehension of the stars.

Idaho: The Mission of the Sacred Heart, Cataldo, 1853

Coeur d’Alenes Old Mission State Park/Facebook

Erected by Jesuits and the Coeur d’Alene Tribe in 1853, The Mission of the Sacred Heart’s extraordinary construction utilizes no nails, confirming the ingenuity and resourcefulness of its builders during that era. It showcases prior faith and historical depth by underscoring the blend of Native American and Catholic traditions.

Illinois: Cahokia Mounds, Collinsville, 600 CE

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Dating back to 600 CE, the Cahokia Mounds illuminate the complexity of pre-Columbian civilization in North America. Researchers and tourists are continually fascinated by its massive earthworks and remnants of an elegant society. Monk Mound, the ground’s central mound, is the largest pre-Columbian earthwork in the Americas.

Indiana: Grouseland, Vincennes, 1804

Grouseland / Home of Wm. H Harrison/Facebook

Grouseland, constructed in 1804 as William Henry Harrison’s residence, is more than a historic home. Here, guests get a glimpse into the life and times of the 9th President of the United States. It also features a collection of vintage relics that connect to the era’s day-to-day living.

Iowa: Louis Arriandeaux Log House, Dubuque, 1827

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Louis Arriandeaux Log House echoes the tenacity of Iowa immigrants by symbolizing the architectural ingenuity of the period; it also proves the rugged lifestyle that characterized American frontier life. This log house is one of the few remaining towers that show Dubuque’s transformation from a mining camp to a thriving city.

Kansas: The Rookery, Leavenworth, 1834

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The Rookery has a storied past of military strategy and initial settlement challenges. A chronicled beacon now offers tourists a singular perspective on the state’s formative years and structural evolution. It once hosted meaningful negotiations with Native American tribes, marking it as a locale of significant historical dialogue.

Kentucky: Richard Masterson House, Lexington, 1790

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Lexington’s Richard Masterson House gives a snapshot into the lives of Kentucky’s pioneer inhabitants. Showcasing age-old American architecture reminds us of the land’s rich antiquarian fabric and early development. The dwelling’s preservation efforts highlight the community’s dedication to connecting to the past.

Louisiana: Mounds located on the Louisiana State University (LSU) campus, Baton Rouge, Prehistoric


The mounds at LSU in Baton Rouge are present beyond modern records and provide a connection to Louisiana’s ancient cultures. Significantly complex, these structures underscore the advanced societal organization and deep-rooted history of the region’s earliest residents. Archaeological evidence suggests these mounds were used for ceremonial purposes, adding a layer of cultural significance.

Maine: McIntire Garrison House, York, 1707

Micum McIntire Clan Association/Facebook

Known for its rare “witch windows” designed to protect against spirits, the McIntire Garrison House in York represents Maine’s foundational heritage and strategic military architecture against Native American conflicts. It is a territory inviting exploration into American defense mechanisms and provides a tangible link to the past.

Maryland: Cedar Park, Prince George’s County, 1690

Prince George’s County Historical Society/Facebook

Since 1690, Cedar Park in Prince George’s County has been a cornerstone of Maryland’s conquest era. Offering a rich narrative of old American life, design progression, and the diverse stories shaping the state’s legacy and identity, it also holds a special place in local folklore for its ghostly legends.

Massachusetts: The Fairbanks House, Dedham, 1637

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Dedham’s Fairbanks House, dating back to 1637, is the oldest timber-frame dwelling in North America. Its architecture reveals the founding populations’ skills and adaptability, and the residence has remained in the Fairbanks family for generations. As a venerable residence, it also vividly portrays colonization and survival.

Michigan: Officers’ Stone Quarters in Fort Mackinac, Mackinac Island, 1780

MackinacIsland.Net – Mackinac Island Michigan/Facebook

At Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, the Officers’ Stone Quarters, built in 1780, is Michigan’s oldest surviving structure. Its sturdy stone construction reflects the military architecture of the era and the stronghold’s strategic importance. Today, it serves as an exhibition hall, immersing visitors in military and local history.

Minnesota: Jeffers Petroglyphs, Comfrey, Prehistoric

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The Jeffers Petroglyphs in Comfrey feature timeless carvings on red rock and open a window into the spiritual lives of Native Americans over thousands of years. This sacred venue, still revered by indigenous peoples, connects us to the region’s earliest occupants’ beliefs, traditions, and astronomical knowledge.

Mississippi: LaPointe-Krebs House, Pascagoula, 1757

La Pointe – Krebs House and Museum/Facebook

Pascagoula’s LaPointe-Krebs’ unique blend of French colonial and Native American building techniques makes it a significant edificial and ancestral landmark. The house’s gallery educates visitors on the Gulf Coast’s multicultural heritage. Furthermore, it is recognized for surviving numerous hurricanes over the centuries, validating its resilience.

Missouri: poteaux-sur-sol (post-on-sill) house, Ste. Genevieve, 1792

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In Ste. Genevieve, the poteaux-sur-sol (post-on-sill) house from 1792, depicts Missouri’s French colonial architecture. Its construction methodology, rare in North America, highlights the cultural fusion of French occupants and indigenous craftsmanship. Preserved as an epochal site, it sheds light on the initial inhabitant lifestyle.

Montana: Fort Connah Site, Charlo, 1846

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Charlo’s Fort Connah, erected in 1846, is one of the last Hudson’s Bay Company trading posts in the U.S. Its significance lies in the saga of the fur trade era and the interaction between European traders and Native American tribes. The site’s restoration tasks aim to educate about the region’s economic and cultural exchanges.

Nebraska: Bellevue Log Cabin, Bellevue, 1830

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Bellevue’s Log Cabin signifies the pioneering spirit of the first colonizers and their life on the frontier. Conserved near the original premises, it provides a tangible connection to the hardships and triumphs of the district’s first residents. Interestingly, the cabin is recognized as a critical piece of the land’s retro narrative.

Nevada: Old Mormon Fort, Las Vegas, 1855

Nevada State Museum, Las Vegas/Facebook

Old Mormon Fort represents the early Mormon settlers’ exertions to establish a midway point between Salt Lake City and California. Today, the citadel is a state park, offering insights into Nevada’s settlement and development. An intriguing aspect is that it houses the first permanent non-native structure in the Las Vegas Valley.

New Hampshire: Jackson House, Portsmouth, 1664

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Portsmouth’s Jackson House, dating to 1664, is the oldest wooden residence in New Hampshire. Its construction reflects the conquest era’s architectural style and was at the forefront of colonists’ daily lives. Now a museum, it allows tourists to explore New England’s historical development and domestic life.

New Jersey: C. A Nothnagle House, Gibbstown, 1638


Gibbstown’s C. A Nothnagle House, erected in 1638, stands as one of the oldest log cabins in the United States. Its preservation offers a unique glimpse into the domestic life of America’s earliest European occupants. The cabin’s design and materials provide insight into 17th-century building practices and settler fortitude.

New Mexico: Taos Pueblo, Taos, 1000 AD


Standing as a validation for the resilience of Native American traditions, Taos Pueblo in New Mexico has been home to the Pueblo people since 1000 AD. Its adobe buildings, some of which are several stories high, illustrate old-fashioned construction methodologies and a vibrant, ongoing cultural legacy.

New York: The Wyckoff House, Brooklyn, 1652

Wyckoff Farmhouse/Facebook

In Brooklyn, the Wyckoff House grants a glimpse into the Dutch settlement era. It now functions as a gallery, immersing visitors in the agricultural practices, family life, and cultural impact of continental newcomers.

North Carolina: Newbold-White House, Hertford, 1730

Perquimans County Restoration Association Newbold-White House/Facebook

Hertford’s Newbold-White House provides a snapshot of life in imperial North Carolina. The iconic plantation home, initially owned by Quakers, educates visitors with its original architecture and a collection of period artifacts, painting a picture of American resilience and innovation.

North Dakota: Gingras State Historic Site, Walhalla, 1843

Pembina State Museum/Facebook

North Dakota’s fur trading heritage is vividly commemorated at the Gingras State Historic Site in Walhalla. Here, the narrative unfolds around Antoine Gingras, a notable figure whose life and commercial endeavors with indigenous communities and European tradespeople are meticulously chronicled.

Ohio: Wolf Plains, Athens County, 1000 BC

Athens County OH History/Pinterest

The time-honored Adena mounds at Wolf Plains in Athens County, created around 1000 BC, represent one of Ohio’s most significant archaic grounds. These ritualistic earthworks speak volumes about the Adena culture, showcasing their engineering skills, rituals, and societal organization.

Oklahoma: Spiro Mounds, Spiro, 800 AD

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Spiro and its surrounding area are distinguished by the Spiro Mounds, which play a critical role in the history of the ancient Mississippian civilization. Its elaborate ceremonial mounds and treasures reveal the complexity and sophistication of the societies that once thrived in the district.

Oregon: Molalla Log House, Molalla, 1790s

Molalla Area Historical Society/Facebook

Thought to have been built in the 1790s, the Molalla Log House remains a mysterious relic of Oregon’s narrative. Its precise origins—whether tied to Euro-American settlers or the Russian-American Company—reflect the diverse influences shaping the Pacific Northwest’s development.

Pennsylvania: Drexel Hill, Delaware County, 1640

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Reflecting Pennsylvania’s European heritage, a Swedish log cabin in Drexel Hill, Delaware County, showcases the pioneer inhabitants’ adaptation to their new environment. It features architectural details and settlement patterns indicative of Swedish influence. Additionally, this log cabin is noted for being one of the oldest standing structures in the United States.

Rhode Island: Clemence-Irons House, Johnston, 1691

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The Clemence-Irons House in Johnston is a distinctive example of Rhode Island’s stone-ender architectural style, exclusive to the area. It is a portal to 17th-century life, giving us invaluable knowledge about primitive colonists’ daily routines, artistic preferences, and cultural practices.

South Carolina: St. James Church, Goose Creek, 1719

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Goose Creek’s St. James Church pays homage to South Carolina’s religious legacy and constructional sophistication. The church’s preservation allows guests to explore its traditional impact, spatial details, and the role it played in the spiritual and community living of the colonial era. Intriguingly, it features one of the earliest documented parish libraries in the country.

South Dakota: Fort Sisseton, Lake City, 1864

Fort Sisseton Historic State Park/Facebook

Historic Fort Sisseton marks a significant military outpost on the northern Great Plains. Its well-preserved barracks provide a snapshot of frontier life and military strategy. Interestingly, the fort has never been attacked, serving as a peaceful intermediary and a center for trade and negotiations rather than a battleground.

Tennessee: Old Stone Fort, Manchester, 1-500 AD

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Manchester’s Old Stone Fort encapsulates Tennessee’s rich culture and aligns with the summer solstice sunrise. The American Indian structure of the bygone era, which was thought to have served as a sacramental venue, features a stunning display of age-old engineering and ethereal relevance.

Texas: Lubbock Lake Landmark, Lubbock, 12,000 BC

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At Lubbock Lake Landmark, evidence of continuous human habitation since 12,000 BC reveals Texas’s deep historical roots. This archaeological location provides unique observations into the ancient people of the Southern High Plains through well-protected artifacts and ecofacts.

Utah: Ancient Puebloan cliff dwellings, Various locations, 750-1300 AD

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Scattered across Utah, the Ancient Puebloan cliff dwellings stand as monuments to the ingenuity of Ancestral Puebloans. These structures in natural alcoves display an advanced grasp of architecture, communal living, and environmentalism. The abodes are particularly noted for their strategic placement, which provided natural defense.

Vermont: Governor Hunt House, Vernon, 1779

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Vernon’s Governor Hunt House was pivotal in Vermont’s yesteryear governance and history. Serving as Governor Jonathan Hunt’s home, it confirms the land’s political legacy and new-world design. The house also served as a meeting place for key figures in the early independence movements.

Virginia: Wren Building, Williamsburg, 1699

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The Wren Building in Williamsburg is the oldest academic tower in the U.S., residing at the College of William & Mary. Its enduring presence reflects the evolution of American education and imperial tradition. Over the centuries, it has survived three major fires, each time being rebuilt.

Washington: Prince’s Cabin, Kettle Falls, 1818

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Prince’s Cabin near Kettle Falls represents the prior interactions between European expatriates and Native American tribes, serving as a critical point in the region’s fur trade network. Furthermore, it is one of the few tangible remnants of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s extensive commercial system in the Pacific Northwest.

West Virginia: Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, 250-150 BC

Grave Creek Mound Archaeological Complex/Facebook

Grave Creek Mound in Moundsville is a towering example of the conical mounds crafted by the Adena culture. The prehistoric earthwork links to the early inhabitants of the Ohio River Valley, showcasing their burial strategies and social organization. Remarkably, the premises also include an interpretive museum.

Wisconsin: Tank Cottage, Green Bay, 1776

Leffingwell House Museum/Facebook

Tank Cottage in Green Bay, designed by French Canadian fur trader Joseph Roy in 1776, is Wisconsin’s earliest European architecture and settlement example. It marks the initial colonization and trade procedures in the area and offers a snapshot into the life of 18th-century pioneers.

Wyoming: Bighorn Medicine Wheel, Lovell, 1200-1700 AD

Ancient Origins/Facebook

Perched high in the Bighorn National Forest, the Bighorn Medicine Wheel pays homage to Native American cultures’ advanced astronomical knowledge and spiritual practices. Its intricate stone alignments indicate a sophisticated understanding of celestial events. Beyond its astronomical relevance, the spot is believed to have been used for healing rituals and as a place of pilgrimage.


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